Gardens, Shrines & Mountains

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• a flowering of Middle English literature: John Wyclif translated the Bible into English (1381), Geoffrey Chaucer began his Canterbury tales (1386)
• some key late medieval architecture: Westminster Hall wooden roof (1394), York Minster east window (1408)
• political unrest during a time of plague, population decline and worsening climate: Peasant's Revolt against unequal taxation and feudalism (1381), deposition of the autocratic Richard II (1399)
1400 AD

Formation of Japanese Meal

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• the peak of Old English literature: Alfric of Eynsham on Christian theology, Wulfstan of York on politics and law, Bryhtferth of Ramsey on science, and the great manuscript collections of poetry were made
• the Winchester art style of manuscript illumination and painting
• Danish attacks and conquest of England (1013-16), the Scandinavian empire of King Cnut (1016-1035)
• Scotland was fully united in 1018 when Malcolm II annexed Strathclyde
1000 AD

Growth of Cities

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• the first writings in Old English begin in charters and wills
• King Offa of Mercia (758-796), built Offa's Dyke between Mercia and Wales
• Viking attacks on Britain began (793)
• Emperor Charlemagne created the Holy Roman Empire in Europe (800) 794 AD

Power of Water & Rock

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• early illuminated manuscripts in Britain and Ireland, e.g. Lindisfarne Gospels
• Bede of Jarrow, major scholar of theology and history writing (690-735), his key historical work the Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731)
• Hamwic trading town established (modern Southampton) as part of the revival of the early medieval economy
• Moslem conquest of Spain (711), conquest of France failed (732) 710 AD

Life & Death in a Changing Society

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• Roman Empire at its height, rich villas and mosaics in Britain, major cemeteries such as Lankhills cemetery in Winchester
• forts built to guard the Saxon Shore in the south east of Britain
• Emperor Constantine legalised Christianity (313), moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople (modern Istanbul) 300 AD

The Impact of Rice

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• European Iron Age, La Tene art style in the west and Britain
• hillforts (such as Danebury) and small farms, major production of wheat, horse riding and chariots
• Alexander the Great created the first major world power in Greece, Persia and Egypt (336-323) 300 BC

Mystery of Dogu Figurines

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• Early Bronze Age in Britain, rich burials with bronze and gold artefacts, such as the Amesbury Archer (2300) and Bush Barrow (2030)
• farmsteads of wooden round houses
• Later phase of Stonehenge religious and ceremonial site, the main period of use of stone and timber circles 2000 BC

Earliest Villages & Cemeteries

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• Late Neolithic Britain, farming of wheat, barley, cattle, sheep and pigs
• Skara Brae 'village' in Orkney
• Grimes Graves flint mines were begun
• Early phase of Stonehenge religious and ceremonial site, Ness of Brodgar major religious site in Orkney 3000 BC

A Land of Plenty

Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world
• Late Mesolithic Britain, hunters and gatherers living of such as red deer, hazel nuts and fish
• the warmest climate in Britain during the last 12,000 years (2° C warmer than now)
• Goldcliff human footprints
• Morton and Oronsay settlements in the north of Britain 5000 BC